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Ahad, 20 Mei 2012

Token Ekonomi


Token Ekonomi
Pendekatan Token Ekonomi
  • Peneguhan positif.
  • A Token economy is a method of using a complex system consequences that is typically applied with groups of individuals for a wide range of behaviors.
  • Token economies differ from other token systems in two ways
    • Try to change the behavior of groups of people, rather than just one person.
    • Attempt to change relatively wide ranges of target behaviors.
  • Mula digunakan pada abad ke 19 ( oleh Alexander Meconochie) untuk system mata bagi banduan.
Faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan Token ekonomi.
  • Kenalpasti tingkah laku sasaran.
  • Definisikan dengan jelas tingkah laku sasaran.
  • Kendalikan analisis fungsian.
  • Pengubah tingkah laku mesti berkemahiran.
  • Garisdasar mesti dilakukan dengan betul.
Cara aplikasi Token Ekonomi
  1. Pemilihan token
    • Token adalah dalam berbagai jenis/bentuk. Cth. Poker chips, stars,tandatangan.
    • Sistem point mesti dikenalpasti – berikan nilai berbeza kepada token.
    • Sistem token boleh dilakukan berbeza mengikut jenis token dan jenis tingkah laku.
    • Token mesti mudah dibawa tetapi tidak mudah dicuri ataupun di tiru.
2. Backup Reinforces and punishers
    • Both direct and indirect assessment procedures can be used to identify backup reinforces and punishers.
    • The wider the variety of reinforces, the more likely the token reinforces will maintain value.
    • Some system use response cost procedures, in which token are taken away to punish inappropriate behavior.
3. Managing the consequences
  1. A large number of backup reinforces should be in hand.
  2. Token should be carefully administered.
    • Clearly describe criteria for earning and exchanging tokens.
    • Award tokens as immediately as possible.
    • Use reinforcers such as praise along with tokens
    • Keep accurate records of behavior and consequences.
    • Provide bonuses for high-level performance.
  1. Those administering reinforcers should understand their responsibilities so they do not duplicate reinforcement or fail to reinforce assuming others will.
  2. Individuals can self-reinforce with tokens, but there must be methods in place to ensure accuracy.
  3. Several factors should be considered when determining how many tokens a behavior will earn.
    • Less pleasant activities might earn more.
    • Those with less ability might earn more.
    • Use more tokens on first few days.
    • Gradually thin schedules.
  1. Several factors should be considered when determining exchange rates.
    • Costs should relate to the number of tokens that can be earned
    • Cost in tokens might reflect to he actual cost of items.
    • High- demand items might cost more.
    • Offer lower cost for backups that have therapeutic value.
    1. Availability of exchanges for backups should take into account intellectual and cognitive abilities.
    1. Token economies can use group or individual contingencies.
    • Keep in mind the advantages and disadvantages of group contingencies.
    • Hybrid system can employ both individual and group contingencies.
4. Phasing out the program.
    • In programs that target long term change, the token system should be phased out. Several approaches can be used to ensure long-term generalization of the skills learned in the token economy.
      • Use natural reinforcers such as praise and feedback.
      • Fade the use of tokens
      • Increase the number of tokens required to buy backups.
      • Increase the delay between earning tokens and redmeeing them.
* Aplikasi – classroom, psychiatric settings, keluarga dan seting pekerjaan. 

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